Most Recent Articles

The Effect of Nitric Oxide on Exercise Performance and Respiration Recovery Time: Brian Lee & Nathania Nguyen
A blind study was conducted to see the effects that the nitric oxide (NO) supplement, "MRI Nitric Oxide Platinum Hemodilator," has on exercise performance and respiration recovery time. Nitric oxide causes vasodilation of the blood vessel and a subsequent increase in blood flow to skeletal muscles to ensure an adequate supply of oxygen and metabolic fuel, as well as the removal of metabolic waste. The experiment was conducted over two separate days on four different individuals (two males and two females). On the first day, baseline data was collected before and after exercise. On the second day, two of the individuals (one male and one female) received the NO supplement and the other two individuals (one male and one female) received a corn starch placebo; just as the first day, data was collected before and after exercise. Data included results for blood pressure, respiration recovery time and muscle fatigue. Blood pressure decreased prior to exercise for those who received the supplement and stayed the same for those who did not receive the supplement. Respiration recovery time also decreased for those who received the supplement. Those who did not receive the supplement had a higher respiration recovery time, or the same recovery time. Evidently, anecdotal evidence supporting the effects of NO supplements on athletic performance may be due to its respiratory effects rather than its intended muscular effects. The results of this study indicated a contradiction with nitric oxide's advertised physiological effects.

The Effects of Token Economies on the Occurrence of Appropriate and Inappropriate Behaviors by Children with Autism in a Social Skills Setting: Kerilynn Cangi & Michelle Daly
In both social and academic settings, students are expected to demonstrate social skills including maintaining personal space and complying with instructions. Children with autism display difficulties with these skills, accompanied by a myriad of inappropriate behaviors, including hitting and pinching. Research indicates token economies are effective interventions for decreasing inappropriate and increasing appropriate behaviors. Two children (ages 10 and 7, with autism) participated in a social skills group consisting of typical children, children with autism, and student volunteers. Throughout 14 one-hour sessions, WCU student volunteers implemented token economies contingent on demonstrating 'quiet hands' (maintaining hands in current activity). Frequency data was collected on hitting and pinching behaviors. Duration data was collected on 'quiet hands.' For Doug, the token economy was a differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviors: 'quiet hands' tokens + no consequence was delivered for hitting (social function). Upon achieving 10 tokens, Doug received one minute of playtime. As a secondary reinforcer, Greg received a short break from the group to walk to the water fountain. Outcomes indicate an increase in the duration of quiet hands and a reduction in the frequency of hitting and pinching upon implementation of the token economy. This presentation will include visual representations of data (graphs) and analysis of data. It will extend the results to real world issues in the field of autism.

Synthesis and Purification of Diarylnorbornadiene Derivatives: Kyle Spivack
Diarylnorbornadienes are a class of molecules that exhibit a possibility to produce energy in a fashion vaguely similar to common solar panels. Research in increasing the efficiency of the inherent energy producing properties that are exhibited by these compounds might some day help to decrease our dependence on finite, inefficient, and dirty fossil fuels. In this research endeavor, two unique and never before studied norbornadienes were synthesized and purified using a method of separation known as High Pressure Liquid Chromatography, or HPLC. The compound's synthesized were characterized by a technique called Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, or NMR. Professional third party analysis of the two compounds proved that they were indeed synthesized to a degree of purity that is acceptable amongst the scientific community, demonstrating the effectiveness of our recently pioneered methods of synthesis and separation.

Feminism in the Human Heroine: Caitlyn Rivera
Historically, little complexity has existed in the character of the human female in vampire literature. Typically, in many of the older texts of this genre, the human woman is portrayed as no more than the clueless, innocent victim of a vampire's insatiable bloodlust. Such is the case in John Polidori's The Vampyre, as well as in James Malcolm Rymer's Varney the Vampire. However, with the rise of the New Woman in the late nineteenth Century and her subsequent influence upon the women in literature, a new nature of woman has risen to fame even in the pages of gothic horror. The mortal woman no longer exists for the sole purpose of perishing at the hands of the vampire fiend; she is a living, breathing character with internal struggles and emotions, as well as an ability to suspect and resist the power of the vampire. Using the late-Victorian New Woman as a model, this explication identifies and examines the feminist qualities of three salient human heroines that have surfaced in vampire literature over the last century-and-a-half: Mina Murray Harker of Bram Stoker's Dracula, Isabella Swan of Stephenie Meyer's Twilight, and Elena Gilbert of the CW's The Vampire Diaries.

Emergent Harmony in a Discordant Land: The Creolization of Music in the Eighteenth-Century Tidewater: James Padilioni, Jr.
This research paper will analyze the development of a creolized musical culture in the Tidewater of Virginia during the eighteenth century. This creole music combined elements of both European/British Isles music with traditional West African idioms. There are several historical questions that this paper will attempt to address. How is it that a cross-racial music culture developed within a society that was focused on the concept of ordered hierarchy and designed to culturally segregate Anglo and Afro-Virginians? Was this shared music culture the result of unidirectional influence of European music styles being forced onto subjugated Africans, or was it a bidirectional exchange in which members of both groups contained agency? Additionally, the historiographic significance of this study will be addressed, from both a musicological and slave studies perspective. The phenomenon of this creolized music culture deserves close attention because it is the foundation of the majority of American popular music forms, and is yet one more way to analyze the nuance and complexity of actual individuals within the plantation slave system in the Chesapeake. By incorporating the work of social scientist F.A. Hayek, this paper closes by attempting to explain the causality behind the emergence of this music. Much work has been done within the historiography of American slavery to dispel tropes and generalizations; this research seeks to add to that body of knowledge.

Separation and Quantitation of FD&C Red Dye #40 in Commercially Available Fruit Flavored Beverages: Devon Zimmerman
In the experiment described, a method for separating FD&C Red Dye #40 from anthocyanins was determined. This method was then determined to applicable to an analytical chemistry laboratory setting. FD&C Red Dye #40 is a common red azo dye used to provide red color to beverages. Anthocyanins are another source of red color is natural pigments. The two sources of red color have different health effects and both have been the subject of scientific research. The method presented utilizes solid phase extraction as a separation technique and spectrophotometric analysis as a quantitation technique. This allows students in an analytical chemistry laboratory setting to accurately quantify the amounts of FD&C Red Dye #40 in common beverages. The quantitation also involves standard dilutions which will also provide additional analytical chemistry experience for students.

Japanese Domestic Tourism -
Japan's Search for National Identity through Heritage, Nature, and Modernity Tourism since the 1990s: David Vincent Celentano

A large body of scholarly work exists in the field of tourism studies. Most of theses works, however, focus on Western tourism from a Western perspective and overlook Asia and other areas around the world. With Asia's ever-growing population and economic power, its domestic tourism industry is becoming a multibillion-dollar industry and merits attention from academics. Focusing on the ascent of Japan's domestic tourism industry during the 1990s to present, this paper argues that the influx of domestic tourism in Japan is due to a need for a consolidated identity that connects the people to one another. The Japanese people take part in three types of domestic tourism to reconnect with their national identity: heritage, nature and modernity tourism. Along with various academic articles, data from international tourism organizations and published texts, I also draw on my own experiences studying in Japan during the summer of 2009 and interviews with Japanese citizens to add nuance to the understanding of Japanese domestic tourism.

Synthesis and Uses of Tris[(3-ethoxy-4-hydroxydibenzylidine)acetone]dipalladium(0): William Brett Barclay
The optimization for the synthesis of tris[(3-ethoxy-4-hydroxydibenzylidine)acetone]dipalladium(0) (Pd2dba3) is discussed. This compound is significant because it is used in the synthesis of palladium catalysts. The importance of a good synthesis rests on purity and yield, as well as how it will be implemented into the future steps through the solubility and volatility. In this case, the palladium catalysts are of particular use in synthesizing polymers. A few of them are also synthesized with varying results.